Tag Archive for electronics

Panel Pooper

Institutionalized Dumpster Dive

Over the weekend, I had occasion (in other words I made an occasion) to visit A1 parts and surplus in Etobicoke. I have mentioned it before as a candyland for the junk enthusiast and this is essentially correct. Despite its remote location, it is well worth the visit, just be prepared to dig and expect no help from the rather cantankerous guy at the counter. Total comic book guy for the electronics store which I find endearing rather than offensive. Anyway, if you ever end up there, be prepared to wade through tons of unsorted junk, find a few gems, and score a few surplus deals.

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Lipstick on a Dummy

Or how I just love to overcomplicate things

Lights, buttons knobs and dials have always fascinated me. In fact, it says so in my baby book pretty much exactly. I think that was genesis of my love for technology, electronics, sci-fi and general science and nerdom. After all, what could be cooker then “techy shit” as gmunk puts it?

With every project I do, I tend to dream up ways of making the interface and functionality as flexible (read: complicated) as possible. I want to feel like I’m flying the frickin’ Enterprise when I do my thing.

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Dummy load acquires stability

Just a quick test and a quick solution

Had a few minutes to just check up on why the load would change when the voltage does. A simple test of trying a higher voltage power supply seemed to do the trick. Stayed within 10mA of where it should, and probably did better than that, but my multimeter can’t measure that. The new power supply is a 200mA 12V wall wort which is very unregulated. I measure 16V off the bugger with no load. Makes me wonder if what is printed on the box is merely a suggestion. Still, nice to have the headroom. Now the opamps have enough swing to really kick that MOSFET into regulating the current flow reliably.

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Dummy load get’s a tune up and another test

Improvements and fine tuning

As mentioned in my last post on the dummy load, though I am very pleased with the results, there is always room for some fine tuning and improvement. Also, some parts needed to be bought. First off, here’s a revised version of the schematic:

dummy-load-v14_thumb
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Encouraging results

Some quick tests work out quite well

Had a tiny pocket of time with which to test a few things with my aforementioned dummy load I just build. In looking through my collection of junked wall wort power supplies I found a low power one, a 9V 210mA. I wanted to check and see if the voltage headroom for the opamp would be worse. As it turns out, the stated 9V is actually 11.3ishV but whatever. I knew the supply would only need to deliver a few milliamps so I ventured to see how much exactly.

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Dummy Load revisted

The dummy load returns and I do some cooking

I do very much enjoy watching youtube channels on electronics. It has probably been the single most instructive resource for me and led to real understanding of what I am actually doing.

Some time ago, I watched Dave Jone’s excellent episode on building a constant current sink – a “dummy load” which is an essential piece of test gear for testing out power supplies. So much less fiddly than messing with loosely spec’d power resistors, I had always had the intention of building one but never quite got around to it.

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Bleeding it dry

Shocking!

Cor blimey I nearly blew my head off. Shorting capacitors, particularly large ones is a very scary experience. I had removed the rectification board from the mains board of the power supply project. Read more

Constructive Feedback

The Zener pre-regulator returns, and is improved

So nice to have finally set up my workbench again and I’m a flurry of pliers and screwdrivers. Following up on a semi-meh-kinda success (but sort-of fail) is a resounding success! Just what the engineer ordered.

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The Milliohm Meter gets a tune up

Inexactness always bothered me. In the electronics hobby it is to be expected, given the millions of tiny variables we assume don’t exist just make our calculations take less than a year and our designs to be reasonably constructible at home.

I’m referring specifically to my milliohm meter adaptor which I’ve been fiddling with (see here and here oh and here). Last time, I cursed the inexactness of my cheap Chinese multimeter, and not having a 2A range so I could be reasonably sure of getting its output as close as possible to 1A. In addition, the accuracy (as contrasted with the resolution) was bad enough to introduce a significant grey area to my calibration.

I have laying about a bunch of 1% resistors I bought to act as current sense resistors for various projects and I went about testing them. Given the schematic from last time, the readings tended to be off (and high) by about 2.5%. For the 1Ω 1% resistors this netted a reading of 1.022-1.025 on my multimeter. In the ball park but most certainly out of spec. Having ten of these resistors, and finding them all out by the same amount, it’s easy to come to the conclusion that my current source is off calibration, rather the resistors being out of spec.

Adopting a standard

Lacking any better equipment, I decided to take these 1Ω 1% resistors as my standard and set about fixing my current source so they read within 1% of 1Ω and call it a day (as that is as good as I am going to get without better test gear).

After a bunch of fidding, I decided to remove the 15Ω resistor out of the parallel arrangement to slightly drop the current output by about 50mA. I then adjusted the pot until one of the 1Ω resistors read exactly 1.000V (i.e. 1.000Ω). This puts it (theoretically) within 1% of reality.

I then tested the other nine resistors and trimmed the pot slightly so the distribution of values all hovered within 1% of 1Ω. This means a reading beween 0.990 and 1.010V on my multimeter. I found that I was able to do this and have the results repeatable. Job done, right?

Always some fly in the lube

Though I was able to get it to repeatedly read these ten resistors within 1% of their stated values, I did notice something different when I checked a bunch of 0.1Ω 1% resistors I also had laying about. Their readings tended to be high by as much as 30%! So, for a resistor that should show up as 0.100V on my multimeter (well, okay, between 0.099 and 0.101) I was getting values around 0.120 and 0.130. Frustrating!

I checked the current output and it was (in)exactly the same as when I was testing the 1Ω resistors so it doesn’t appear as if the current regulation of the LM317 is going into crazy non-linearity. I’m a bit stumped by this one. How could it get 1Ω so right and 0.1Ω so wrong?

I did pick up the 0.1Ω resistors from a junk place, so i’m not at all confident they are what they should be, still sort of unlikely. Other culprits could be that the thing is heating up and affecting it’s performance, or the construction lends itself to be in the “noise floor” and subject to all sorts of random perturbations.

Acceptance

Given that I do not own my much coveted Fluke 87-V yet which does have the accuracy and resolution for me to tune the current output, I really can’t go any farther with this one. I could try feeding it 100mA instead of 1A and seeing if the results are more linear (indeed, this would have been in line with the original specs of the schematic I adapted this from) and if they are to replace the set resistors with the appropriate values for 100mA. This does give me the annoying problem that the volts display on my multimeter would then read in 10s of ohms which I had hoped to avoid. I could then, conceivably, add in an opamp with a gain of 10 to amplify the result, which would then doubtless introduce more error into the design.

I will also have to check this heating issue and seeing if the drift is due to the LM317 overheating. An easy fix for that would be to give it a 5V supply (instead of 12+V) to drop the voltage differential that the LM317 has to deal with and lower it’s power dissipation. I may try that now actually.

Nope, just tried it and the same result. I fear this will have to be “good enough” for now. Testing a couple of 0.75Ω resistors looked to be okay, 1Ω is okay, 0.1Ω is quite a bit off. I might try the 100mA option but otherwise I’ll just finish assembly and call it a day. I wish I had some other 0.1Ω resistors to check…

A word of warning

My design (perhaps foolishly) dumps a constant 1A into anything you connect to it. The test resistors I used were all 2W+ power resistors and this circuit will definitely (proven by experiment) melt 1/4W carbon film resistors so please do not do that. Think of that math: a 1Ω resistor with one amp running through it will drop 1V. 1V at 1A = 1W or 4x the rating of the little 1/4W resistor. So do not use this on something that can’t take it. As always, I am not responsible if you set yourself on fire. The 100mA option is looking more attractive by the minute…

An update

Because I simply love beating dead horses, and really do not like nagging problems, I chose to investigate further. I modified the circuit to produce an output of 100mA or thereabouts thinking that perhaps asking the LM317 to dump an amp might be skewing the results a tad. This also allows me to use the higher resolution 200mA DC current range on my multimeter for a clearer picture. I bypassed the parallel resistor array and whacked in a 15Ω resistor. The results were… interesting:

Resistor Current Voltage measurement
83.3mA 86.6mV
0.1Ω 83.3mA 11.9mV

Note something interesting? Well I notice a few things. According to Ohm’s law, 100mA into 1Ω should net 100mV. Likewise, 100mA into 0.1Ω should net 10mV. Since the actual current delivered is 83.3mA, then the readings measured should be 83.3mV and 8.33mV respectively. The 1Ω resistor is pretty close at an actual reading of 86.6mV, off by 3.3mV or 3.96%. The 0.1Ω resistor however is reading 11.9mA when it should (ideally) read 8.33, a difference of 3.57mV or 42.9%! Even accounting for nominal irregularities, that’s a huge difference in accuracy.

What’s most interesting about this result is – the measured current of the resistor in both cases was the same. Making the variance in results even more surprising.

Now let’s go back to the 1A current output, and this time i’ll trim it to exactly (as I can) 1A.

Resistor Current Voltage measurement
1.00A 1.066V
0.1Ω 1.00A 0.155V

Now this is very telling. Again, using Ohm’s law, 1A should equal 1V in this case (making our math much less messier than before). The actual reading in both cases for the current is 1.00A (limitation of the 10A range on my multimeter). The 1Ω resistor again acquitted itself well by being off by 6.6mV or 6.6%. The 0.1Ω resistor however is having serious trouble reading 0.155V, or 55% over it’s expected value! What on earth is wrong here?

It’s obvious since part of the trouble in both cases is that the results are shifted in a positive direction. This could easily be attributable to losses and random craziness in the project design itself and the foibles of the components that make it up. Fortunately, we can trim that. If we take our 1Ω 1% resistor as standard (and why not, it’s proven by math to at least be close to its stated value), we can trim the current so it reads exactly 1.000V and compare. Here are the results:

Resistor Current Voltage measurement
0.94A 1.000V
0.1Ω 0.94A 0.143V

Now this is much better, and you can see why I used the 1Ω for calibration. The loss of 60mA (to God knows where) is sort of incidental. The important thing is each resistor is getting identical (or within half a bee’s dick) current. The 1Ω resistor shows 1.000V exactly as it should. Look, however, at the 0.1Ω resistor. It should be reading 0.100V (or within 1% of that) now that we have trimmed out any errors in the system. Instead, it’s showing 0.143V or 43% off of what it should.

Why exactly this is happening I am unable to determine. I do not have other 0.1Ω resistors to test but it could very well mean that the batch of 0.1Ω 1% resistors I received from the junk shop are horribly off tolerance. Or it could mean that my multimeter is not reading well into the mV range (even though it has a stated accuracy of 0.5%). Since it seems that the LM317 is dutifully dumping the exact same amount of current (be it 100mA or 1A) it would follow that the results would be reasonable regardless of which resistor I used.

Conclusions

It has to be good enough for now since I lack the equipment to test further. Either the 0.1Ω resistors are way off, or my multimeter is. Either is likely but hard to say which. The easiest test would be if I grab some other 0.1Ω 1% resistors that inspire more confidence. The best test would be for me to use a good, properly calibrated multimeter (when I can afford that). The stated 0.5% accuracy of my current heap of shit meter would make it allowable for the readings to be off by a millivolt, but not 43mV! This is of course assuming it was ever calibrated of which I am doubtful.

Though exactitude is again proving elusive, I can at least measure low value resistors more accurately, at least in the range of about 0.7Ω-10Ω which is a bonus compared to what I had before.

Voltmeter troubleshooting

Tests reveal something interesting

As a follow up to my previous post, I had a few minutes to mess with the erratically behaving voltmeter today and I believe a few quick tests might have found the problem – two problems anyway. The solution is not yet clear, but I have some idea on how to proceed now at least.

In reading the very helpful Tips for using Single-Chip 3½ Digit A/D Converters – thank you Intersil – I performed a couple of tests using my multimeter and scope

By the way, to those other hobbyists out there – you really can’t live without a scope, even a basic analog one like mine. Helps to see what the hell you are doing.

Testing voltages

So my first thought was to probe around and collect some voltage readings to see how effective (or not) my input voltage divider is. As it turns out, mostly, it works! Within a certain amount of error of course, but I can trim that out easily. I measured the voltage coming in to the IN HI pin of the IC and it returned values as expect in all ranges except for 2V. So there’s problem number one: I need to put a proper resistor value between IN HI and IN LOW for the 2V range. I’ll solve that later.

What was most illuminating was the 20V range. As before, a 5V input revealed close to expected voltages at that decade setting on the IC pin. It did also using a 12V input BUT at 12V input, on the 20V setting – the number was off by half it seemed. Curious.The correct voltage was reaching the IC IN HI pin, but why was it displaying something different?

In looking at the Tips datasheet (linked above) one of the questions in the accuracy section asked about a non-linear voltage at higher input levels. Well damn, that sounds like what’s happening. From the data sheet:

Accuracy Problems
Problem – Above a certain input voltage level, the displayed reading does not linearly track the input.
Action – Observe the waveform at the output of the integrator stage (pin 27) of the A/D converter. There should be no clipping at the positive and negative peaks of the ramped waveform. The value of RINT or CINT may be too small, or the oscillator frequency may be too low, allowing the integrator to saturate. See previous section on component value selection.

So the integrator could be the culprit. I tried to check the waveforms with my scope and I have a hard time interpreting the results. My scope is old and hack calibrated so I’m not quite sure what I should be looking at. I probed the integrator pin and bounced up and down on DC coupling like a low frequency square wave. I probably should have it on AC coupling which revealed a very short ramp up long sustain and quick drop. The datasheet showed an example waveform that looks just like a triangle wave to me (ramp up and down) so this is not quite what I was expecting. Either I get a low frequency square wave (dc coupling) or something completely wrong (AC coupling). It said to watch for clipping, so this could be what’s happening. A flat sustain I guess could be interpreted as extreme clipping. Anyone want to chime in?

So now I have a possible plan of action. I may breadboard up another unit to make easy changes and experiments without having to solder and de-solder the built one, then apply the changes to the built one. It also suggested the oscillator frequency might be too low, but as far as I can see on the scope, it is correct and producing nice waveforms. Here’s what I have to do:

  • Re-check voltages to make sure the voltage divider is not at fault
  • Check value and replace the caps on the integrator pins of the IC, possibly with a bit higher value
  • Probe the integrator to see if that produces the nice ramp-up/ramp-down waveform

Hopefully fixing the integrator will solve the problem and I hope I didn’t fry three ICs doing this.

Later that day…

OK well this is encouraging. I googled around (what I do when I’m obsessed with a nagging problem) and came across something I didn’t see before. Two other gents, using the same schematic are having very similar issues. Best part is they solved it (at least for them, who knows about me yet). Read here

So the coles notes version is that not only do I have to trim up my divider scheme on the input but I am probably missing a connection! I did think of this fix last night but I didn’t try it for some reason or other. It makes sense to because this ties REF LO, IN LOW, and ANALOG COMMON together giving us a fixed reference point. Both claimed that it fixed the issue and it started behaving properly which is good news!

What I find confusing is that it isn’t clear if I am supposed to connect IN LO to ANALOG COMMON and to ground, or if I’m only allowed to connect IN LO to ANALOG COMMON or ground (not both). The official datasheet seems to suggest I can’t do both but the forum comment claims success with connecting both. For safety reasons (the ICs are $3.80 a pop) I will try just connecting IN LOW to ANALOG COMMON/REF LO and see if I have success. If not, i’ll try connecting the lot to ground also.

As I am at my girlfriend’s place for a few days I will be unable to test it (oh why can’t I have everything in the same place?) but it will also give me a much needed break from swearing at the thing.

Here is my updated fix-it list:

  • Connect pin 32 (REF LO) to IN LOW
  • Smoke test power on
  • Check that the REF HI pin reads exactly 1V from and adjust if not
  • Conduct test measurements and rejoice if fixed, howl if not

If this turns out to be the culprit i’ll be so pleased as I don’t have to mess with swapping out caps, playing with the integrator, or checking every bloody joint on the board. Wish me luck!